Students’ understanding of knowledge can be divided into direct understanding and indirect understanding
The integration of direct understanding and perceptual processes is achieved in the twinkling of an eye.For example, the familiar statements, sentences or phenomena, actions, etc. are directly understood, while the understanding of knowledge comprehension stage usually refers to indirect understanding.In the course of teaching, the understanding of knowledge is realized mainly through the generalization of teaching materials.For example, in order to enable students to master the concept of “Angle”, it is necessary to enable students to extract common and essential features from the graphs of various angles, which are the same endpoint, two rays and the same plane.At the same time, let the students discard the size, shape and other non-essential characteristics of the Angle, and come to the conclusion that the Angle is a plane graph composed of two rays emitted from the same endpoint.Variation and comparison are very important in the course of textbook generalization.The so-called variant is to transform the non-essential features of things with different intuitive materials in order to highlight their essential features.For example, when talking about triangles, we should list not only acute triangles, but also obtuse triangles and right triangles.Not only the general triangle, but also the isosceles triangle, equilateral triangle and other representative figures are listed, so as to avoid students to reduce the concept or expand the concept unreasonably.Some pupils think butterflies are birds and chickens and ducks are not birds because they can’t fly. This wrong understanding is often caused by the unrepresentative variation chosen by teachers.Comparisons can be made between similar things as well as between different kinds of things.The comparison between similar things is to extract the common features of one kind of things;The comparison between different kinds of things not only highlights the essential characteristics of all kinds of things, but also enables students to understand the connections and differences between all kinds of things.Comparison can enable students to further understand the essence of knowledge in the comparison of various knowledge.Although the understanding of knowledge can be divided into two stages: perception of knowledge and understanding of knowledge, but the two stages are not completely separated.Perception and understanding are two cognitive processes at different levels, which are subject to the nature of learning materials and the state of preparation of learners.There is no absolute natural gap between being the object of perception to another and being the object of understanding to oneself.Knowledge retention Knowledge comprehension is only the beginning of knowledge learning, learners understand the knowledge only stored in memory, can be extracted and used when needed.The process of learners’ lasting memory of the knowledge acquired in the comprehension stage is the maintenance of knowledge, which is also known as the consolidation of knowledge.Knowledge consolidation involves learners’ memory activities.It is generally believed that memory consists of three basic steps: memorization, retention, recognition or recall.Recognition and retention play a dominant role in memory activities, which are two essential cognitive activities in knowledge learning.Modern cognitive psychologists tend to explain and describe memory from the perspective of information processing, thinking that memory is a process of encoding, storing, extracting or retrieving input information.In the process of knowledge learning, learners keep the content of the textbook mainly through the long-term memory system.The characteristics and rules of memory activities as well as effective methods to enhance memory and avoid forgetting are described in detail in chapter 5 learning strategies.The fundamental purpose of knowledge learning lies in application, which can be divided into broad sense and narrow sense, and this process is also known as knowledge concretization.It’s our main concern.Knowledge can be applied in a variety of flexible forms, such as classroom solutions, written assignments, laboratory operations, social investigations and consultations.In the teaching process, the application or concretization of knowledge generally includes four interrelated but independent links: examination, association, analysis and generalization.Examining the topic is to understand the meaning of the topic, clarify the conditions and problems in the topic, and form the initial characterization of the topic.Topic examination is the primary link of applying knowledge to solve the subject. There are two kinds of mistakes made by students in the topic examination: they do not pay attention to the topic, which is not carefully read the topic, omission of important information, or eager to try and guess, blindly solve the problem;Will not examine the topic, for the lack of examination skills, I do not know what to pay attention to, what to do.Therefore, attention should be paid to the cultivation and training of students’ ability of examining topics in teaching, so that students can master the procedures and methods of examining topics, and form a good habit of examining topics.Association is to extract or retrieve the relevant knowledge structure in mind with the subject representation as a clue.It is an important problem solving link after the examination.Association can be either very simple, direct and difficult to realize, such as when solving easier or familiar topics, or very expanded, indirect and conscious, such as when solving more complex or unfamiliar topics.There are two kinds of common errors in students’ association: one is the error of association content caused by the low understanding level of teaching material content or the error of understanding;The second is the inassociation caused by the unconsolidated knowledge that has been understood, which is difficult to be activated or retrieved.In teaching, students should be given proper help for the types of errors in the process of association.Analysis is on the basis of association, analysis of the internal relationship between the various parts of the subject, and the various parts of the subject and the relevant knowledge extracted from the brain to match.This is the core of the reification process and determines the level of reification.The failure of students to solve problems is mainly due to the failure of analysis, that is, they can not through a series of analysis, synthesis, find out the common essential characteristics of the current topic and the past examples, but only isolated project opposition, matching.Therefore, we should pay attention to teaching students the necessary analytical skills in order to improve their problem-solving ability.Generalization is to put the current subject into the existing abstract knowledge structure, so as to find the way and method to solve the subject from the existing knowledge structure.Generalization is carried out on the basis of analysis and is the last step in solving problems.The generalized topics can enrich the knowledge structure of learners, which is conducive to the association and analysis of similar topics in the future.The four links of examination, association, analysis and generalization are related to each other in the process of knowledge concretization.Each link is a prerequisite for the execution of the next link.In the process of solving complex problems, examination, association, analysis and generalization are often carried out in cycles.In a word, the application of knowledge plays an important role in knowledge learning.Knowledge that learners grasp and retain in memory can only be verified and tested through application.At the same time, only in the process of knowledge application, the knowledge acquired by learners can be transformed into ability, so as to realize the directional role of knowledge in practical life.In addition, the application of knowledge can further promote the understanding and consolidation of existing knowledge and strengthen the connection between the various parts of the knowledge structure.The process of knowledge learning is complicated and affected by many factors.Among them, the learning enthusiasm of learners, the preparation of existing knowledge, the mastery of mental skills and the structure of teaching materials are the four important factors affecting knowledge learning.Learning enthusiasm, that is, learning motivation, is a prerequisite for knowledge learning.Research shows that the higher the learning enthusiasm, the more focused the learner’s attention, the more full and precise the processing of the learning material, the more active and more conscious the learning.Therefore, teachers should pay attention to the use of various methods in teaching, fully mobilize students’ learning enthusiasm, so that students take the initiative to participate in the process of knowledge learning, in order to achieve better learning results.See the chapter on motivation for learning.Knowledge learning is carried out on the basis of learners’ existing knowledge preparation.According to Ausubel, the essence of acquiring new knowledge is that learners establish an impersonal and substantial connection between new knowledge and existing knowledge in their cognitive structure through assimilation.Among them, the existing knowledge in learners’ cognitive structure plays an important role in fixing the new knowledge.Therefore, learning cannot happen if there is no appropriate knowledge in the learner’s existing cognitive structure that can have a fixed effect on the new knowledge.It can be seen that the preparation of learners’ existing knowledge is very important for new learning.The learning of new knowledge can proceed smoothly only when the learners are well prepared for the corresponding knowledge.Mental skill is a legal way of mental activity to regulate and control learning activities, which affects the whole process of knowledge mastery.There are a variety of mental skills, including abstract and general skills suitable for a wide range of fields, such as metacognitive skills, reading skills, etc., and specific skills only suitable for a specific field, such as computing skills, problem-solving skills, etc.Usually, teachers only pay attention to students’ mastery of learning content and neglect the cultivation of mental skills in teaching, which is bound to affect the formation and development of students’ ability.Therefore, teachers should not only pay attention to the teaching of knowledge, but also pay attention to the teaching of mental skills in order to enhance students’ self-control and self-management of learning activities.Whether the structure of teaching materials is reasonable or not directly restricts students’ knowledge learning and the establishment of knowledge structure.Bauer et al. found that participants’ memory performance for organized and systematic learning materials was significantly better than that for unorganized and randomly arranged learning materials.This shows that an organized and systematic teaching material structure can promote the comprehension, retention and retrieval of knowledge.In the process of school education, students should not only master the rich cultural and scientific knowledge accumulated by human beings, but also form a series of skills in this process.The “action” here includes both external practical action and internal intellectual action.Operational skills, also known as motor skills or motor skills.Operation skill consists of a series of skeletal and muscle voluntary movements, which are characterized by external dominance, continuity, coordination and stability.The study of operational skills is one of the main contents of school education.Handicraft class, experiment class, physical education class and so on are set up to train students’ various operation skills.In all kinds of vocational education, the learning of operational skills plays a particularly important role. It is an essential factor to train and bring up special talents in sports, music, production and labor fields.