The Biography of Zhang Qian, Serial 23: The War in Heqin (Ii)

2022-05-01 0 By

In the sixth year of emperor Wen’s Reign (174 BC), the Han Sent a message to xiongnu, saying: “The emperor respectfully regards The Xiongnu dashan Yu as safe and sound.What you suggest in your letter, I quite agree with, is the opinion of the wise king of the North.The Han dynasty was willing to fraternized with the Xiongnu, so it gave Shan Yu very generous gifts.But it was often the Xiongnu who broke the covenant and divided fraternal feelings.If Shan Yu can clearly tell the officers not to violate the covenant and keep his word, we will respectfully do as Shan Yu has written.We send you an nglam green apron, an nglam long suit, an nglam long suit, an nglam green robe, a gold strip, a gold hook, 10 pieces of embroidered silk, 30 pieces of brocade, 40 pieces of chedi and green shrek.Shortly afterwards, MAO Dun died, and his son Ji Porridge succeeded him, who was known as Lao Shang Shan Yu.So Emperor Wen sent Shan Yu a daughter of the royal family to be his wife and sent eunuch officials to assist the princess.Bank of China said threatened not to go, han forced him.To his surprise, the Bank of China immediately surrendered to The Xiongnu.At first, the Xiongnu liked The Zeng and food of the Han Dynasty. Zhonghang said, “The Number of the Xiongnu is not as large as that of a county of the Han Dynasty. The reason for its strength is that it does not depend on the Han Dynasty because it is different from the Han people in food and clothing.If you make clothes made from Han dynasty’s zeng, and wear them on horseback in the brambles of the grassland, your clothes will be torn, which shows that han dynasty’s clothes are not as strong and durable as those from zhanyi fur.And han food is not as convenient and delicious as Huns’ milk and dairy products.”Later, the Bank of China taught Shan Yu how to count and verify their population and livestock numbers, completely betraying the Han Dynasty.When the han dynasty to give khan, written in the book of a foot one inch of wood, the bank of China said let khan to the han dynasty the credit of a foot 2 inches of wood, and the size of the seal and lute are widened more longer, write letters at the beginning of the words more pride: “born to heaven and earth, the sun the place of the huns great khan respectfully greet the han dynasty emperor safe.”Some of the emissaries of the Han Dynasty said, “The customs of the Xiongnu despise the aged.”The bank of China said, “It is the same in the Han Dynasty. When the people sent to camp on the frontier set out, don’t their old parents bring out their warm clothes and rich food for the people to eat and wear?”The han messenger said, “It is so.”Zhongxing said again: “The Huns are to war as a major event, those old and infirm people can not fight, so the rich food supply healthy people, which is also used to defend themselves ah!Only in this way can father and son protect each other for a long time. How can we say that the Huns despise the elderly?”The emissary of the Han Dynasty said, “The father and son of the Xiongnu are sleeping together in a tent.Upon the death of the elder brother, the surviving brother may marry the wife of the deceased elder brother.Moreover, the Huns did not have the decoration of hats, ribbons, or the etiquette of the court.”Zhongxing said after hearing a little angry, but he is the Han people not to temper, and made some explanation: “The customs of the Xiongnu is that people eat livestock meat, drink their milk, wear their skin;Livestock eat grass and drink water and migrate to other places with the seasons.Therefore, in times of crisis, people practiced horseback riding and archery. In times of peace, people lived peacefully with few restrictions. The relationship between the king and the minister was very simple.If a father or brother dies and the living takes the wife of the deceased, he does not want the clan to be destroyed.Although the Xiongnu are often confused, they must establish an heir.Although the Han dynasty’s moral principles were meticulous and did not marry their fathers’ and brothers’ wives, they were estranged from their relatives and even changed their names because of this.Too much etiquette also has its drawbacks. There will be resentment between the sovereign and the minister, and they will all pursue the lofty and beautiful palace, which will inevitably deplete the wealth of the people.The Huns relied on nomadism for food and clothing and defended themselves with sincere unity, so the people practiced fighting in emergencies and immediately joined the herding labor when they were relaxed.Alas, the Han people who live in houses of mud and stone like nothing better than idleness and silence.”From then on, when the Han Emissaries wanted to argue, the Middle school always said, “The Han emissaries don’t talk too much, as long as you send them cloth and grain in sufficient quantity and good quality. Why talk too much?If your supplies are incomplete and poor, the Huns will ride and trample your crops in autumn when they are ripe!”In the 14th year of the Reign of Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty (166BC), Shan Yu led 140,000 cavalry into Xiaoguan, killed the commander of the northern region and carried off many civilians and animals.Xiongnu scouts approached the Oasis Palace in Yongdi.In the face of the great enemy, Emperor Wen appointed lieutenant Zhou She and Lang Zhong to appoint Zhang Wu as general. One thousand chariots and one hundred thousand cavalry were stationed near the city of Chang ‘an to guard against the invasion of xiongnu.They appointed Lu Qing, marquis of Chang, as general of Shangjun, Wei Zhao, Marquis of Ning, as general of Beidi, Zhou Zao, marquis of Longxi, Zhang Xiangru, marquis of Dongyang as general, and Dong Chi, Marquis of Cheng, as former general. They sent chariots and cavalry to attack Xiongnu on a large scale.The elite cavalry under Shan Yu was driven out of the frontier by the Han army, but suffered no losses.Every year, the Huns invaded the border and killed and plundered people and livestock, among which yunzhong and Liaodong counties suffered the most.Then Emperor Han sent messengers to xiongnu, and Dan Yu sent danghu a reply to the xiongnu. The two sides also discussed the matter of reconciliation.In the second year of emperor Hou Yuan (BC 162), Emperor Wen sent a message to xiongnu, saying: “The emperor respectfully regards The Xiongnu dashan Yu as safe and sound.I respectfully accepted the two horses you sent me from The lang Zhong, Han Liao.The former emperor had a rule: the land north of the Great Wall was the country of archers with bows and arrows, subject to simple rule;Inside the Wall, I control all the houses with hats and belts.I will let the people cultivate, weave and hunt for food and clothing. Father and son will not be separated from each other. Lords and princes will live in peace, and there will be no tyranny or rebellion.”Now I hear of wicked warmongers who have broken promises, broken covenants, forgotten the lives of thousands, and divided the friendship of two Kings, for the profit of war and plunder. But that was all in the past.Your letter says that peace has been made between the two countries, that the two monarchs have stopped fighting and that the days of peace have resumed.I couldn’t agree more.The sage should improve his morals and words every day, so that the old can be kept in peace, the young can grow up, and everyone can enjoy their days in peace.Both Shan Yu and I follow this principle. We follow the will of heaven and show compassion to the people. Everyone under heaven will benefit.The Han Dynasty and the Xiongnu were neighbors on equal terms. Xiongnu was in the north, so cold and the spirit of killing came early. So I ordered the officials to send A certain amount of gold silk, silk wool and other goods to Shan Yu every year.”Now the world is in peace and the people are happy. Shan Yu and I are very happy as their commanders.Think back to the past, are small things, is the adviser to consider the wrong, are not worth the friendship between brothers.I’ve heard that the heavens don’t cover only one place, the earth doesn’t support only one place.Both Shan Yu and I have abandoned our previous minor misunderstandings, followed the general principles, eliminated our previous displeasure, and worked together for long-term interests, so that the people of our two countries can become like one family.Let’s all put the past behind us!I absolve the Han people who fled to the Xiongnu of their crimes, and Shan Yu will not pursue zhang Ni and others who fled to the Han Dynasty.I’ve heard that the ancient Kings knew good from evil and never went back on their word.I hope that if you remember the covenant, the world will be especially peaceful. After making peace with your relatives, the Han Dynasty will not break the covenant first. I hope that you will clearly examine this matter.”Shan Yu replied that he agreed to make peace, so Emperor Wen ordered the imperial historian to say: “Dan Yu sent me a letter saying that the peace agreement had been confirmed. He said that the Hungarians would not invade China and the Han dynasty would not leave China, and those who violated the present treaty would be put to death.I have promised.Please let the world know about this.”The days that followed were calm and settled.The xiongnu leader then into army minister khan, the minister khan is very uneasy cent, suddenly invading county, the county, the cloud factions thirty thousand cavalry across the south, the Great Wall and looting of the central plains people send fruge three generals back troops separately, such as forcing the huns withdrew to the Great Wall, and Samson chow troops stationed along the Great Wall, to monitor the huns.After emperor Jing came to the throne, he thought that shan Yu, a military official, had forgotten the treaty of reconciliation between his father and the Han dynasty, so he sent letters to remind him and sent precious gifts to the Xiongnu, indicating that the Han dynasty still married princesses and shan Yu and would never violate the treaty.However, old habits are hard to change. The Events of Xiongnu attacking soldiers who stick to the border of the Great Wall often happen.But when it came to Emperor Wudi’s reign, things were different.Emperor Wudi was young and resourceful.In spite of the action of his father emperor, he sent property to the Xiongnu, and also opened the border markets, so that the Xiongnu and the Han border people more contact, more communication.He wanted the following subjects to become closer to the Han dynasty.But wudi time did not forget to attack xiongnu, wash the shame of the former dynasty.Finally, after several years of sending Zhang Sai on a diplomatic mission, Emperor Wudi decided to use troops against the Xiongnu.He consulted with his courtiers and decided to send Nie Weng Yi, a subordinate of Ma Yi Prefecture, to seduce Shan Yu by deliberately violating the ban by smuggling goods and trading with Xiongnu under the pretext of selling Ma Yi.The news reached the ears of the army minister, long after ma Yi property of the army minister, immediately led one hundred thousand knights into Wuzhou.However, the Han army had scattered and ambushed more than 300,000 elite troops in the vicinity of Mayi, under the command of five generals including the imperial historian, to ambush Shan Yu.Shan Yu entered the Han Pass with great pride and went more than 100 li deep. He was very surprised to see cattle everywhere but no one was grazing. He attacked the nearby sentry post first.At that time, yanmen wei history is not far from the enemy’s situation, accidentally caught by shan, to kill on the spot.Timid cherish life of the wei immediately knelt down to beg for mercy, for the location of the Han army ambush.Shan Yu was surprised: “How dangerous!We almost fell for it.”He quickly led the troops to escape, did not dare to look back around, until the guan Saito Wei shi said: “Today God help me, caught you this great savior, let me land on my feet.Since you have come to the land of the king of grassland, you will be a ‘King of Heaven’!”The shrewd and capable Emperor wudi, lacking military experience for the first time, miscalculated before Shan Yu.If it is not the history of wild goose door wei this soft defect to the enemy, only in the first World War in Ma Yi soldiers lost, was killed a piece left…Review of the previous issue: The Biography of Zhang Qian, Serial 22: The Campaign of the Imperial Family (I)