The geography of China (history and culture)
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, The largest provincial-level administrative region in China, covers an area of 1,664,900 square kilometers. It is the largest provincial-level administrative region in China in terms of land area, accounting for about one sixth of China’s total land area. Located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, Xinjiang has a land border of over 5,600 kilometers.Bordering Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Mongolia, India and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, it was an important passage of the ancient Silk Road in history.Qinghai Lake qinghai Lake is the largest saltwater lake in Inland China, located in qinghai Province in the northeast part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the largest inland lake in China.It was formed by the collapse of faults between Datong and Riyue mountains in qilian Mountains and Nanshan in Qinghai Province.The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is about 2,800 kilometers long from east to west, 300 ~ 1,500 kilometers wide from north to south, with a total area of about 2.5 million square kilometers. It is the largest plateau in China and the highest in the world, and is known as the “roof of the world” and the “third pole”.From the southern edge of the Himalayas in the south, to the kunlun Mountains, the Altun Mountains and the northern edge of the Qilian Mountains in the north, the Pamir Plateau and the Karakoram Mountains in the west, and the Western section of the Qinling Mountains and the Loess Plateau in the east and northeast.The largest basin, Tarim Basin, is located in southern Xinjiang, China. It is the largest inland basin in China.The basin lies between the Tianshan, Kunlun and Altun mountains.It is 520 kilometers wide from north to south and 1,400 kilometers long from east to west, covering an area of more than 400,000 square kilometers.The elevation is between 800 and 1300 meters, and the terrain is high in the west and low in the east.Turpan Basin has a continental desert climate, arid and hot, with annual precipitation of about 16 mm and evaporation of up to 3000 mm. The highest temperature in summer has been recorded at 49.6℃, and the average highest temperature from June to August is above 38℃.The sand surface temperature at noon is up to 82.3℃, so it has been called “Huozhou” since ancient times.Taiwan Island, the largest island of China, is located in the southern part of the East China Sea, west of the Taiwan Strait (part of the East China Sea), 75 ~ 220 nautical miles off the coast of Fujian Province.Located in Gaochang District of Turpan City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Aiding Lake is the lowest point of the Turpan Basin and the lowest point of China’s land.The lake surface is 154.31 m below sea level, with the lowest point reaching -161 m below the lake floor.Turpan Basin is a closed intermontane basin on the south side of the eastern tianshan Mountains in China, and Aiding Lake is the destination of turpan basin surface runoff.The longest river – the Yangtze River, the world’s largest river of water energy, the third longest river, the longest river in Asia, originates from the “roof of the world” – the Tibetan Plateau tanggula Mountains geladandong peak southwest side.River flows through the qinghai province, Tibet autonomous region, sichuan province, yunnan province, chongqing, hubei, hunan, jiangxi, anhui, jiangsu, Shanghai, a total of 11 provincial-level administrative region (eight provinces city, area), into the east China sea east of chongming island, 6387 km, the length of the river in the world behind the Nile in Africa and the amazon in South America,Ranking third in the world.The earliest longest canal – the beijing-hangzhou grand canal was founded in the spring and autumn period, the beijing-hangzhou grand canal is the world’s longest mileage, engineering, the biggest ancient canal, also is one of the oldest canal, and the Great Wall, karez and called the three great project in ancient China, and use up to now, is China’s ancient working people create a great project, is one of the symbols of Chinese culture status.The grand Canal starts from Yuhang (today’s Hangzhou) in the south, reaches chojun (today’s Beijing) in the north, passes through today’s zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, Hebei four provinces and Tianjin, Beijing two cities, through the Haihe river, the Yellow River, the Huaihe River, the Yangtze River, qiantang River five major water system, the main water source is Weishan Lake, the grand Canal length is about 1797 kilometers.Tian ‘anmen Square is located in the center of Beijing. It is 880 meters long from north to south and 500 meters wide from east to west. It covers an area of 440,000 square meters and can hold a grand gathering of one million people.Along the central axis of Beijing from north to south stand the National flag pole, monument to the People’s Heroes, Chairman MAO Memorial Hall and Zhengyangmen Tower.The tarim River, the longest inland river, covers an area of 1.02 million square kilometers.It is the longest inland river in China and the fifth largest inland river in the world.The Yarlung Zangbo River, the longest plateau river in China, is located in Tibet Autonomous Region and is one of the highest rivers in the world.Originating in southwest Tibet in the northern foothills of the Himalayas, the jemayangzong glacier, known as maquan River upstream, from west to east across southern Tibet, bypassing the easternmost himalaya Nanjagbarwa Peak to turn south flow, through Basika out of China.It is second only to the Yangtze River in China.Longest Underground River – Karez The Karez is an underground water conservancy project created during the long historical development of the working people in the arid land.The karez, called “well canal” in ancient times, drew groundwater from the desert and turned it into an oasis.The main working principle of karez is that a large amount of rainwater, glacier and snow melt water that seeps into the ground in spring and summer is extracted from the surface for irrigation by taking advantage of the natural slope of mountains to meet the demand of production and living water in desert areas.Huangguoshu Waterfall, the largest waterfall, is 77.8 meters high, with the main waterfall 67 meters high.The waterfall is 101 meters wide, with the main waterfall 83.3 meters wide at the top.Huangguoshu Waterfall is a typical waterfall in karst landform.Huangguoshu Waterfall is famous since the Ming Dynasty traveler Xu Xiake, through the travel of celebrities, spread, become a well-known scenic spot.Poyang Lake, the largest fresh water lake, is located in the northern part of Jiangxi Province. It is located in jiujiang, Nanchang and Shangrao cities. It is the largest fresh water lake in China and the second largest lake in China, only next to Qinghai Lake.The largest steppe – Inner Mongolia steppe to the north hulun Buir as the center of the great Khingan Mountains foothill forest edge meadow, is also one of the best natural pasture in China.Shanghai, the largest city of the People’s Republic of China, is a provincial-level administrative region, municipality directly under the Central government, national central city, mega city, the core city of Shanghai metropolitan circle, and China’s international economic, financial, trade, shipping, scientific and technological innovation center approved by The State Council.Chongqing is surrounded by Daba Mountain in the north, Wushan mountain in the east, Wuling Mountain in the southeast and Dalou Mountain in the south.The main urban area of Chongqing is mostly between 168 and 400 meters above sea level.The city’s highest peak for the eastern edge of Wuxi County Jieliang Mountain peak Yin Tiaoling, 2796.8 meters above sea level;The lowest is the water surface of the Yangtze River in Wushan County, 73.1 meters above sea level.The elevation difference of Chongqing is 2723.7 meters.The territory of mountain high valley deep, ravines and horizontal, mountain area accounted for 76%, 22% of the hills, valley flat dam only 2%.Mohe City is located in the northwest of Heilongjiang Province, at the northern foot of the Greater Hinggan Mountains, with a border of 242 kilometers and a total area of 18,427 square kilometers.The Altun Mountain National Nature Reserve is the first national nature reserve in China to protect the fragile ecological environment of the plateau.